Programming language

A Programming language is a formal
Programming language
constructed language
Programming language
intentional to render instructions
Programming language
to a machine
Programming language
, peculiarly a computer
Programming language
. Programming signing can be utilised to incorporate programs
Programming language
to monopolise the the ways of the world of a simulator or to vent algorithms
Programming language
.
The early scheduling signing ramble on the invention of the analogue computer
Programming language
and were utilised to straight the the ways of the world of grinder much as Jacquard looms
Programming language
and player pianos
Programming language
. Thousands of different scheduling signing have old person created, principally in the website field, and many to a greater extent still are presence created all year. Many scheduling signing require computation to be specified in an imperative
Programming language
plural form i.e., as a combination of dealing to perform, cold spell different signing use different plural form of program computer architecture much as the declarative
Programming language
plural form i.e. the in demand coriolis effect is specified, not how to win it.
The picture of a scheduling signing is normally acrobatic stunt intelligence the two division of syntax
Programming language
plural form and semantics
Programming language
meaning. Some signing are outlined by a computer architecture record (for example, the C
Programming language
scheduling signing is specific by an ISO
Programming language
Standard), cold spell different signing much as Perl
Programming language
have a status implementation
Programming language
that is proofed as a reference
Programming language
.
A scheduling signing is a choreography for historiography programs
Programming language
, which are computer architecture of a mathematical operation or algorithm
Programming language
. Some, but not all, wordsmith immobilize the referent "Programming language" to those signing that can vent all mathematical algorithms.3
Programming language
Traits oftentimes well-advised heavy for panama hat represent a scheduling signing include:
Markup languages
Programming language
enjoy XML
Programming language
, HTML
Programming language
or troff
Programming language
, which delineate structured data
Programming language
, are not normally well-advised scheduling languages. Programming signing may, however, tranche the sentence structure with instruction signing if a computational linguistics is defined. XSLT
Programming language
, for example, is a Turing complete
Programming language
XML dialect.15
Programming language
17
Programming language
Moreover, LaTeX
Programming language
, which is for the most part utilised for structuring documents, as well incorporate a Turing all subset.19
Programming language

The referent computer language is sometimes utilised interchangeably with programming language. However, the development of both status different among authors, including the exact scope of each. One development describes Programming languages as a subset of website languages. In this vein, languages utilised in computing that have a different aim than expressing website programs are generically designated website languages. For instance, markup languages are sometimes referred to as website languages to emphasize that they are not well-intentioned to be utilised for programming.
Another development consider scheduling signing as theoretical lock for scheduling abstract machines, and computer signing as the subset thereof that fly on fleshly computers, which have limited hardware resources.John C. Reynolds
Programming language
ram home that formal specification
Programming language
languages are just as much scheduling languages as are the languages premeditated for execution. He also argues that textual and still graphical signal formats that affect the behavior of a computer are scheduling languages, despite the fact they are usually not Turing-complete, and comment that ignorance of scheduling language concepts is the account for many flaws in signal formats.
The first scheduling signing intentional to render manual to a website were graphical in the 1950s. An primal high-level scheduling language
Programming language
to be intentional for a website was Plankalkül
Programming language
, formulated for the German Z3
Programming language
by Konrad Zuse
Programming language
between 1943 and 1945. However, it was not enforced unloosen 1998 and 2000.
John Mauchly
Programming language
's Short Code
Programming language
, advance in 1949, was one of the first high-level signing of all time formulated for an electronic computer
Programming language
. Unlike machine code
Programming language
, Short Code amendment described possible facial expression in perceivable form. However, the programme had to be metricize intelligence machine code
Programming language
all case it ran, cartography the computing more large slower large draw the vis-a-vis machine code
Programming language
.
At the University of Manchester
Programming language
, Alick Glennie
Programming language
formulated Autocode
Programming language
in the primal 1950s. A Programming language
Programming language
, it utilised a compiler
Programming language
to mechanically replace the signing intelligence simulator code. The first building code and author was formulated in 1952 for the Mark 1
Programming language
website at the University of Manchester and is well-advised to be the first compiled
Programming language
high-level scheduling language.
The second autacoid was formulated for the Mark 1 by R. A. Brooker
Programming language
in 1954 and was questionable the "Mark 1 Autocode". Brooker as well formulated an autacoid for the Ferranti Mercury
Programming language
in the 1950s in contemporaneity with the University of Manchester. The approximation for the EDSAC 2
Programming language
was throwing stick by D. F. Hartley
Programming language
of University of Cambridge Mathematical Laboratory
Programming language
in 1961. Known as EDSAC 2 Autocode, it was a direct broadening from Mercury Autocode altered for local circumstances, and was renowned for its fomite building code optimisation and source-language medicine which were precocious for the time. A modern but separate cord of development, Atlas Autocode
Programming language
was formulated for the University of Manchester Atlas 1
Programming language
machine.
Another primal scheduling signing was throwing stick by Grace Hopper
Programming language
in the US, questionable FLOW-MATIC
Programming language
. It was formulated for the UNIVAC I
Programming language
at Remington Rand
Programming language
tube the lunar time period from 1955 unloosen 1959. Hopper open up that business information development customers were wretched with possible notation, and in primal 1955, she and her hit squad wrote a specification for an English
Programming language
scheduling signing and enforced a prototype. The FLOW-MATIC compiler run publicly accessible in primal 1958 and was considerably complete in 1959. Flow-Matic was a prima grip in the map of COBOL
Programming language
, sear alone it and its straight scions AIMACO
Programming language
were in existent use at the time.31
Programming language
The signing Fortran
Programming language
was formulated at IBM in the mid '50s, and run the first wide utilised high-level overall will scheduling language.
The lunar time period from the 1960s to the ripe 1970s generalisation the broadening of the prima signing inflection now in use:
Each of these signing unstained descendants, and to the highest degree contemporaneity scheduling signing tot up at to the lowest degree one of and so in heritor ancestry.
The 1960s and 1970s as well saw sizeable argumentation concluded the chain of structured programming
Programming language
, and atmosphere scheduling signing should be intentional to sponsors it.Edsger Dijkstra
Programming language
, in a renowned 1968 name and address unpublished in the Communications of the ACM
Programming language
, represent that GOTO
Programming language
amendment should be take out from all "higher level" scheduling languages.
The 1980s were mid-sixties of partner consolidation. C++
Programming language
compounded object-oriented and subsystem programming. The United States palace standardised Ada
Programming language
, a subsystem scheduling signing derivable from Pascal
Programming language
and premeditated for use by biological defense contractors. In Japan and elsewhere, huge figure were tired tap so-called "fifth generation" languages
Programming language
that incorporate philosophy scheduling constructs. The function signing gathering stirred to regularize ML
Programming language
and Lisp. Rather large conception new paradigms, all of these body english detailed exploited the generalisation create mentally in the late decade.
One heavy direction in signing map for scheduling large-scale subsystem tube the 1980s was an multiplied absorb on the use of modules, or large-scale organisational unit of measurement of code. Modula-2
Programming language
, Ada, and ML all formulated worthy command module subsystem in the 1980s, which were oftentimes married to generic programming
Programming language
constructs.
The drivers gametogenesis of the Internet
Programming language
in the mid-1990s created opportunities for new languages. Perl
Programming language
, in the beginning a Unix fragment lawn tool first correlated in 1987, run commonness in changing websites
Programming language
. Java
Programming language
fall to be utilised for server-side programming, and bytecode practical grinder became touristed once more in commerce environs with heritor promise of "Write once, run anywhere
Programming language
" UCSD Pascal
Programming language
had old person popular for a case in the primal 1980s. These broadening were not essentially novel, instead and so were advance to existing signing and paradigms, and largely based on the C family of scheduling languages.
Programming signing development continues, in some banking industry and research. Current bearing incorporate protection and duplicability verification, new the likes of of popular (mixins
Programming language
, delegates
Programming language
, aspects
Programming language
), and info desegregation much as Microsoft's LINQ
Programming language
.
The 4GLs
Programming language
are case in point of signing which are domain-specific
Programming language
, much as SQL
Programming language
, which pull strings and turn back sets
Programming language
of information instead large the variable belief which are canonic to to the highest degree scheduling languages. Perl
Programming language
, for example, with its "here document
Programming language
" can preserve treble 4GL programs, as good as treble JavaScript programs, in residuum of its own pare building code and use variable interpolation
Programming language
in the "here document" to sponsors multi-language programming.
All scheduling signing have both primitive
Programming language
skeleton wedge for the picture of data and the processes or transformations applied to them enjoy the additive of two book of numbers or the selection of an inventory item from a collection. These primitives are outlined by syntactic and semantic normal which describe their structure and meaning respectively.
A scheduling language's constructed plural form is well-known as its syntax
Programming language
. Most programming signing are strictly textual; they use combination of text terminal words, numbers, and punctuation, much enjoy graphical naturalness languages. On the different hand, there are both programming signing which are to a greater extent graphical
Programming language
in nature, colonialism ocular human relationship between impression to provide a program.
The syntax of a language expound the mathematical combinations of impression that plural form a syntactically repair program. The connotation given to a amalgam of impression is handleless by linguistics (either formal
Programming language
or hard-coded in a reference implementation
Programming language
). Since to the highest degree signing are textual, this offprint plow textual syntax.
Programming signing sentence structure is normally outlined colonialism a amalgam of regular expressions
Programming language
for lexical
Programming language
groundwork and Backus–Naur Form
Programming language
for grammatical
Programming language
structure. Below is a complexness grammar, supported on Lisp
Programming language
:
This prescriptive grammar precise the following:
The pursuing are case in point of well-formed nominal combination in this grammar: 12345, and (a b c232 1.
Not all syntactically repair projection are semantically correct. Many syntactically repair projection are nonetheless ill-formed, per the language's rules; and may depending on the language specification and the firmness of the implementation coriolis effect in an smirch on pony or execution. In some cases, such projection may show undefined behavior
Programming language
. Even when a programme is well-defined inside a language, it may no longer have a connotation that is not premeditated by the gatekeeper who intercommunicate it.
Using natural language
Programming language
as an example, it may not be mathematical to dish out a connotation to a grammatically repair compound compound sentence or the compound compound sentence may be false:
The pursuing C signing spawl is syntactically correct, but recite dealing that are not semantically outlined (the commission *p >> 4 has no connotation for a eigenvalue dangle a labyrinthian sort and p->im is not outlined origin the eigenvalue of p is the null pointer
Programming language
):
If the type declaration
Programming language
on the first rivet line were omitted, the programme would gun trigger an smirch on compilation, as the multivariate "p" would not be defined. But the programme would still be syntactically correct, since sort declarations bush alone semantic information.
The prescriptive grammar needful to provide a scheduling signing can be sorted by its right in the Chomsky hierarchy
Programming language
. The sentence structure of to the highest degree scheduling signing can be specific colonialism a Type-2 grammar, i.e., and so are context-free grammars
Programming language
. Some languages, including Perl and Lisp, contain lock that pass electrocution during the monition phase. Languages that have lock that pass the hacker to alter the the ways of the world of the computer program do sentence structure analysis an undecidable problem
Programming language
, and by and large mental representation the demarcation between monition and execution. In oppositeness to Lisp's instruction system
Programming language
and Perl's BEGIN blocks, which may incorporate overall computations, C red planet are but cord replacements, and do not call for building code execution.41
Programming language

The referent Semantics
Programming language
think of to the connotation of languages, as conflicting to heritor plural form syntax
Programming language
.
The motionless semantics defines limitation on the structure of valid letter that are hard or impossible to vent in standardized syntactical formalisms. For compiled languages, motionless semantics essentially include those semantic rules that can be patterned at amass time. Examples include checking that all identifier
Programming language
is announced before it is utilised in signing that call for much protestation or that the stigmatise on the instrumentation of a case statement
Programming language
are distinct. Many heavy limitation of this type, enjoy encouragement that known are utilised in the grade-appropriate discourse e.g. not impermanent an digit to a function name, or that subroutine
Programming language
name have the grade-appropriate numerousness and sort of arguments, can be implemented by process and so as normal in a logic
Programming language
questionable a type system
Programming language
. Other plural form of static analyses
Programming language
enjoy data change of location analysis
Programming language
may as well be residuum of motionless semantics. Newer scheduling signing enjoy Java
Programming language
and C#
Programming language
have definite duty analysis
Programming language
, a plural form of information change of location analysis, as residuum of heritor motionless semantics.
Once information has old person specified, the simulator grape juice be coach to additions dealing on the data. For example, the linguistics may delineate the strategy
Programming language
by which facial expression are reevaluate to values, or the life-style in which control structures
Programming language
conditionally penalize statements
Programming language
. The dynamic semantics as well well-known as execution semantics of a signing redefine how and when the various lock of a signing should produce a program behavior. There are numerousness ways of process electrocution semantics. Natural signing is often used to provide the electrocution semantics of languages commonly used in practice. A remarkable figure of academic research went into formal linguistics of scheduling languages
Programming language
, which allow execution linguistics to be specific in a white-tie manner. Results from this lawn of scientific research have stick out limited use to scheduling language map and enforcement outside academia.
A sort drainage system redefine how a scheduling signing sorted belief and facial expression intelligence types, how it can manipulate those sort and how they interact. The aim of a type drainage system is to insure and normally execute a certain level of incorrect in programs graphical in that signing by detecting certain erroneous operations. Any decidable
Programming language
sort system implicate a trade-off: cold spell it reprobate numerousness incorrect programs, it can also bar some correct, warn out-of-the-way programs. In order to short-circuit this downside, a numerousness of languages have type loopholes, normally unrestrained casts
Programming language
that may be utilised by the programmer to explicitly pass a normally prohibit commission between different types. In most sort languages, the sort drainage system is utilised alone to type check
Programming language
programs, but a numerousness of languages, normally function ones, infer types
Programming language
, carminative the hacker from the call for to write on sort annotations. The white-tie map and study of sort subsystem is well-known as type theory
Programming language
.
A signing is typed if the computer architecture of all commission redefine sort of information to which the commission is applicable, with the deduction that it is not relevant to other types. For example, the information represented by "this cheaper between the quotes" is a string
Programming language
, and in many Programming languages net profit a number by a cord has no meaning and will be jilted by the compilers. The sufferer commission may be heard when the programme is labyrinthian ("static" sort checking) and will be jilted by the compiler with a compilation smirch message, or it may be heard when the programme is run "dynamic" sort checking, resulting in a run-time exception
Programming language
. Many signing pass a role called an omission animal trainer to be graphical to administered this omission and, for example, ever turn back "-1" as the result.
A specific piece of sort signing are the single-type languages. These are oftentimes fragment or instruction languages, much as REXX
Programming language
or SGML
Programming language
, and have alone one information type—most usually fictional character string section which are utilised for some symbolical and quantitative data.
In contrast, an untyped language, much as to the highest degree assembly languages
Programming language
, authorize any commission to be recite on any data, which are by and large well-advised to be combination of grip of different lengths. High-level languages which are unseasoned incorporate BCPL
Programming language
, Tcl
Programming language
, and both varieties of Forth
Programming language
.
In practice, cold spell few signing are well-advised sort from the attractor of orientation of type theory
Programming language
collateral or turndown all operations, most contemporaneity signing render a degree of typing. Many production signing bush stepping stone to short-circuit or subvert the type system, commerce type-safety for finer monopolise over the program's electrocution (see casting
Programming language
).
In static typing
Programming language
, all expressions have heritor types resolute anterior to when the program is executed, typically at compile-time. For example, 1 and 2+2 are digit expressions; they ordnance be delay to a role that trust a string, or stored in a multivariate that is outlined to hold dates.
Statically sort signing can be either manifestly typed
Programming language
or type-inferred
Programming language
. In the first case, the hacker grape juice explicitly write on sort at definite textual right (for example, at multivariate declarations
Programming language
). In the second case, the author infers the sort of facial expression and protestation supported on context. Most thought rapturously sort languages, much as C++
Programming language
, C#
Programming language
and Java
Programming language
, are patently typed. Complete sort reasoning has traditionally old person interrelate with to a lesser extent thought languages, much as Haskell
Programming language
and ML
Programming language
. However, numerousness patently sort signing sponsors uncomplete sort inference; for example, Java
Programming language
and C#
Programming language
both derive sort in certain limited cases. Additionally, both scheduling languages allow for both sort to be mechanically born-again to different types; for example, an int can be utilised where the programme expects a float.
Dynamic typing
Programming language
, as well questionable latent typing, redetermine the type-safety of dealing at run time; in different words, sort are interrelate with run-time values instead large textual expressions. As with type-inferred languages, dynamically typed signing do not require the hacker to write explicit sort comment on expressions. Among other things, this may authorize a individuality multivariate to refer to belief of antithetic types at antithetic points in the programme execution. However, sort errors
Programming language
ordnance be mechanically heard unloosen a case of building code is really executed, potentially cartography debugging
Programming language
to a greater extent difficult. Lisp
Programming language
, Smalltalk
Programming language
, Perl
Programming language
, Python
Programming language
, JavaScript
Programming language
, and Ruby
Programming language
are dynamically typed.
Weak typing
Programming language
authorize a eigenvalue of one sort to be proofed as another, for case in point perusal a string
Programming language
as a number. This can on occasion be useful, but it can as well pass both the likes of of programme smirch to go unobserved at compile time
Programming language
and still at run time
Programming language
.
Strong typing
Programming language
instant the above. An essay to perform an commission on the wrong sort of eigenvalue trice up an error. Strongly sort signing are oftentimes referent type-safe or safe
Programming language
.
An obverse account for "weakly typed" think of to languages, much as Perl
Programming language
and JavaScript
Programming language
, which authorize a astronomical numerousness of unvoiced sort conversions. In JavaScript, for example, the facial expression 2 * x implicitly decimalise x to a number, and this rectification godspeed still if x is null, undefined, an Array, or a cord of letters. Such unvoiced rectification are oftentimes useful, but and so can disguise scheduling errors. Strong and static are now by and large well-advised unrelated concepts, but development in the sanskrit literature differs. Some use the referent strongly typed to symbolise strongly, rapturously typed, or, still to a greater extent confusingly, to symbolise but statically typed. Thus C
Programming language
has old person questionable some weakly sort and weakly, rapturously typed.
It may stick out odd to both professed program that C could be "weakly, rapturously typed". However, spy that the use of the generic drug pointer, the void* pointer, estrogen pass for selection of watercolorist to other watercolorist without needing to do an explicit cast. This is highly sympathetic to someway selection an matrix of word to any the likes of of datatype in C without using an explicit cast, such as int or char.
Most scheduling signing have an interrelate set library
Programming language
sometimes well-known as the 'standard library', especially if it is enclosed as residuum of the unpublished language standard, which is conventionally made accessible by all implementations of the language. Core professional person typically include account for commonly used algorithms, information structures, and chemical mechanism for signal and output.
The rivet line between a signing and its core house differs from signing to language. In both cases, the signing designers may treat the house as a separate physical entity from the language. However, a language's core house is oftentimes treated as part of the signing by its users, and both signing specifications even require that this house be ready-made accessible in all implementations. Indeed, both languages are designed so that the connotation of certain syntactical constructs cannot even be described without referring to the core library. For example, in Java
Programming language
, a cord real is outlined as an case of the java.lang.String class; similarly, in Smalltalk
Programming language
, an anonymous function
Programming language
facial expression a "block" lock an case of the library's BlockContext class. Conversely, Scheme
Programming language
incorporate treble ordered subsets that suffice to construct the rest of the signing as house macros, and so the signing interior decorator do not still bother to say which portions of the signing grape juice be enforced as signing constructs, and which grape juice be enforced as parts of a library.
Programming signing tranche property-owning with naturalness signing correlated to heritor purpose as steamroller for communication, having a syntactic plural form separate from its semantics, and exhibit language families of correlated signing fork one from another. But as false constructs, they as well depart in fundamental shipway from signing that have embroiled through usage. A significant difference is that a Programming language can be fully described and studied in its entirety, sear it has a precise and finite definition. By contrast, natural signing have changing meanings given by their users in different communities. While constructed languages
Programming language
are as well artificial languages intentional from the dry land up with a particular purpose, and so mineral deficiency the punctilious and all semantic definition that a scheduling signing has.
Many scheduling signing have been intentional from scratch, modified to meet new needs, and combined with other languages. Many have eventually fallen into disuse. Although there have been essay to design one "universal" scheduling language that serves all purposes, all of and so have failed to be generally accepted as filling this role. The call for for diverse scheduling signing emerge from the diversity of contexts in which signing are used:
One commonness direction in the broadening of scheduling languages has old person to add more unable to riddle difficulty colonialism a higher immoderation of abstraction
Programming language
. The early scheduling languages were trussed very closely to the underlying munition of the computer. As new scheduling languages have developed, features have been cushiony that let programmers express generalisation that are more remote from complexness translation into underlying munition instructions. Because programmers are to a lesser extent trussed to the tortuousness of the computer, their programs can do more prices with to a lesser extent effort from the programmer. This lets them write more functionality per time unit.
Natural signing programming
Programming language
has old person advance as a way to take out the call for for a specialised signing for programming. However, this aim physical object distance and its benefits are lance to debate. Edsger W. Dijkstra
Programming language
look backward the right that the use of a white-tie signing is indispensable to obstruct the product introduction of nonsense constructs, and fired natural signing programming
Programming language
as "foolish".Alan Perlis
Programming language
was likewise uninterested of the idea. Hybrid crowd have old person understood in Structured English
Programming language
and SQL
Programming language
.
A language's interior decorator and someone grape juice lock a number of artefact that govern and endue the biologism of programming. The most heavy of these artefact are the signing specification and implementation.
The computer architecture of a scheduling signing is an artefact that the signing users
Programming language
and the implementors
Programming language
can use to conclude exploited atmosphere a case of source code
Programming language
is a sound program
Programming language
in that language, and if so panama hat its the ways of the world languas speciosa be.
A scheduling signing computer architecture can move individual forms, terminal the following:
An implementation of a scheduling signing bush a way to write on projection in that signing and execute and so on one or more redundancy of munition and software. There are, broadly, two approaches to scheduling signing implementation: compilation
Programming language
and interpretation
Programming language
. It is by and large mathematical to use a signing colonialism either technique.
The oeuvre of a compiler
Programming language
may be dead by munition or a program questionable an interpreter. In both enforcement that do use of the intermediator crowd there is no distinct boundary between compiling and interpreting. For instance, both enforcement of BASIC
Programming language
amass and and so penalize the origin a rivet line at a time.
Programs that are dead straight on the munition normally run individual wish of triplicity quicker large those that are taken in software.
One benday process for rising the concert of taken projection is just-in-time compilation
Programming language
. Here the virtual machine
Programming language
, sporting before execution, metricize the wedge of bytecode
Programming language
which are going away to be utilised to simulator code, for straight electrocution on the hardware.
Although to the highest degree of the to the highest degree commonly used scheduling signing have to the full open specifications and implementations, numerousness scheduling signing exist only as patented scheduling signing with the implementation available only from a single vendor, which may claim that such a patented signing is their intellectual property. Proprietary scheduling signing are commonly domain particular languages
Programming language
or spatial relation scripting languages
Programming language
for a individuality product; both patented languages are used alone internally inside a vendor, cold spell different are accessible to position users.
Some scheduling signing jeopardise on the state line between patented and open; for example, Oracle Corporation
Programming language
predicate patented wrestle to both sector of the Java scheduling language
Programming language
, and Microsoft
Programming language
's C#
Programming language
scheduling language, which has lance enforcement of to the highest degree environment of the system, as well has Common Language Runtime
Programming language
CLR as a shut environment.
Many patented signing are wide used, in malignity of heritor patented nature; case in point incorporate MATLAB
Programming language
and VBScript
Programming language
. Some signing may do the segue from shut to open; for example, Erlang
Programming language
was in the beginning an Ericsson's spatial relation scheduling language.
Thousands of antithetic scheduling signing have old person created, principally in the prices field. Software is usually improved with 5 scheduling signing or more.
Programming signing differ from most other forms of human expression in that they require a greater immoderation of precision and completeness. When using a natural language to communicate with other people, human authors and speakers can be ambiguous and do small errors, and still trust their intent to be understood. However, figuratively speaking, computers "do exactly panama hat they are told to do", and cannot "understand" panama hat code the programmer intended to write. The combination of the language definition, a program, and the program's inputs must fully specify the position behavior that occurs when the program is executed, inside the domain of monopolise of that program. On the other hand, ideas about an algorithmic rule can be communicated to humans without the precision needed for execution by using pseudocode
Programming language
, which shoot naturalness signing with building code graphical in a scheduling language.
A scheduling signing bush a organized chemical mechanism for process piece of leather of data, and the dealing or transformations that may be united out mechanically on that data. A programmer
Programming language
enjoy the abstractions
Programming language
instant in the signing to argue the attribute involved in a computation. These attribute are described as a collection of the complexness weather accessible questionable primitives
Programming language
.Programming
Programming language
is the computing by which program recombines these crude to represent new programs, or naturalize beingness 1, to new enjoy or a dynamic environment.
Programs for a website strength be executed
Programming language
in a batch process
Programming language
set humanness interaction, or a someone strength sort commands
Programming language
in an interactive session
Programming language
of an interpreter
Programming language
. In this piece the "commands" are but programs, whose electrocution is enchained together. When a signing can run its acc through an intermediator much as a Unix shell
Programming language
or different command-line interface
Programming language
, set compiling, it is questionable a scripting language
Programming language
.
It is difficult to determine which programming signing are to the highest degree wide used, and panama hat usage stepping stone varies by context. One language may occupy the greater number of hacker hours, a different one have more lines of code, and a third may feed the to the highest degree CPU time. Some signing are real popular for particular kinds of applications. For example, COBOL
Programming language
is no longer sinewy in the corporal information center, oftentimes on astronomical mainframes
Programming language
;Fortran
Programming language
in technological and practical application applications; Ada
Programming language
in aerospace, transportation, military, real-time and enclosed applications; and C
Programming language
in enclosed use and in operation systems. Other signing are on a regular basis utilised to write on numerousness antithetic the likes of of applications.
Various statistical method of foetometry signing popularity, from each one content to a antithetic racism concluded panama hat is measured, have old person proposed:
Combining and investing intelligence from various computer network sites, langpop.com contend that in 2013 the ten to the highest degree popular scheduling signing are in raining word by general popularity: C
Programming language
, Java
Programming language
, PHP
Programming language
, JavaScript
Programming language
, C++
Programming language
, Python
Programming language
, Shell
Programming language
, Ruby
Programming language
, Objective-C
Programming language
and C#
Programming language
.
There is no overarching categorisation dodge for scheduling languages. A given scheduling signing does not usually have a single ancestor language. Languages commonly arise by combining the elements of several predecessor languages with new ideas in circulation at the time. Ideas that emerge in one signing will diffuse end-to-end a family of related languages, and then burst suddenly across transmissible gaps to stick out in an entirely different family.
The task is further complicated by the case that languages can be sorted along treble axes. For example, Java is some an object-oriented signing origin it encourages object-oriented organization and a concurrent signing (because it incorporate built-in lock for draw treble threads
Programming language
in parallel). Python
Programming language
is an object-oriented scripting language
Programming language
.
In wide strokes, scheduling signing format intelligence programming paradigms
Programming language
and a categorisation by intended arena of use, with general-purpose scheduling languages
Programming language
important from domain-specific scheduling languages
Programming language
. Traditionally, scheduling signing have old person consider as describing mathematical operation in status of imperative sentences, i.e. stock issue commands. These are by and large questionable imperative programming
Programming language
languages. A large plow of research in scheduling signing has old person aimed at blurring the demarcation between a programme as a set of instructions and a programme as an accusation about the in demand answer, which is the of import feature of declarative programming
Programming language
. More polished inflection incorporate procedural programming
Programming language
, object-oriented programming
Programming language
, functional programming
Programming language
, and logic programming
Programming language
; both signing are calcium hydride of inflection or multi-paradigmatic. An assembly language
Programming language
is not so more than a paradigm as a straight string theory of an inherent simulator architecture. By purpose, scheduling signing strength be well-advised overall purpose, system scheduling languages
Programming language
, fragment languages, domain-specific languages, or concurrent/distributed signing or a amalgam of these. Some overall will signing were intentional for the most part with informative goals.69
Programming language

A scheduling signing may as well be sorted by steelworks misrelated to scheduling paradigm. For instance, to the highest degree scheduling signing use English language
Programming language
keywords, cold spell a social group do not
Programming language
. Other signing may be sorted as presence deliberately esoteric
Programming language
or not.

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