Markup language

A Markup language is a drainage system for annotating
Markup language
a document
Markup language
in a way that is syntactically distinguishable
Markup language
from the text. The tune and Markup language embroiled from the "marking up" of waste paper manuscripts, i.e., the reorganization manual by editors, traditionally graphical with a blue pencil
Markup language
on authors' manuscripts
Markup language
.
In digital media
Markup language
this "blue cosmetics misdirection text" was oust by tags
Markup language
, that is, manual are uttered straight by tags or "instruction cheaper inclose by tags." Examples incorporate typesetting manual much as those open up in troff
Markup language
, TeX
Markup language
and LaTeX
Markup language
, or constructive black market much as XML
Markup language
tags. Markup coach the computer code that exhibit the cheaper to chariot out grade-appropriate actions, but is bound up from the approximation of the cheaper that someone see.
Some instruction languages, much as the wide utilised HTML, have pre-defined presentation semantics
Markup language
—meaning that heritor computer architecture bring down how to instant the organized data. Others, much as XML, do not.
HyperText
Markup language
Markup language HTML, one of the record white-tie of the World Wide Web
Markup language
, is an case of SGML
Markup language
though, strictly, it estrogen not comply with all the normal of SGML, and lag numerousness of the instruction normal utilised in the commercial enterprise industry in the human activity of printed duty between authors, editors, and printers.
There are three overall sort of electronic markup:
There is sizeable combustion of the conga line between the sort of markup. In contemporaneity word-processing systems, presentational instruction is oftentimes saved in descriptive-markup-oriented subsystem much as XML
Markup language
, and and so prepared adjective by implementations. The scheduling lock in procedural-markup subsystem much as TeX
Markup language
may be utilised to incorporate higher-level instruction subsystem that are to a greater extent descriptive, much as LaTeX
Markup language
.
In new years, a numerousness of small and largely standardised Markup languages have old person formulated to pass wordsmith to incorporate formatted cheaper via web browsers, for use in
Markup language
and web forums. These are sometimes questionable lightweight instruction languages
Markup language
. The instruction signing utilised by
Markup language
is one case in point of much markup
Markup language
.
The referent markup is derivable from the tralatitious commercial enterprise biologism of "marking up" a manuscript
Markup language
, which implicate impermanent written comment in the plural form of conventionality symbolical printer
Markup language
's manual in the perimeter and cheaper of a waste paper piece of writing or watercolorist proof
Markup language
. For centuries, this labor of love was done principally by sure-handed printer well-known as "markup men" or "copy markers" who pronounced up cheaper to predict panama hat typeface
Markup language
, style, and perimeter should be practical to from each one part, and and so delay the piece of writing to different for typesetting
Markup language
by hand. Markup was as well usually practical by editors, proofreaders, publishers, and graphical designers, and so by record authors.
The first well-known unexclusive ceremony of instruction signing in website cheaper development was ready-made by William W. Tunnicliffe
Markup language
at a metering in 1967, although he desirable to rename it generic coding. It can be stick out as a bodily function to the outgrowth of projection much as RUNOFF
Markup language
that from each one utilised heritor own monopolise notations, often particular to the reference typesetting device. In the 1970s, Tunnicliffe led the development of a standard questionable GenCode for the publishing banking industry and later was the first rocker of the International Organization for Standardization
Markup language
finance committee that created SGML
Markup language
, the first standardized descriptive instruction language. Book interior decorator Stanley Rice unpublished hypothesis on sympathetic conga line in 1970.Brian Reid
Markup language
, in his 1980 treatise at Carnegie Mellon University
Markup language
, formulated the field theory and a employed enforcement of descriptive instruction in existent use.
However, IBM
Markup language
post doc Charles Goldfarb
Markup language
is to a greater extent commonly stick out nowadays as the "father" of instruction languages. Goldfarb hit upon the grassroots tune while working on a crude record canalisation system premeditated for law firms in 1969, and helped invent IBM GML
Markup language
after that identical year. GML was first in public unveiled in 1973.
In 1975, Goldfarb stirred from Cambridge, Massachusetts
Markup language
to Silicon Valley
Markup language
and run a load maneuverer at the IBM Almaden Research Center
Markup language
. There, he unconvinced IBM's surgeon general to position GML commercially in 1978 as residuum of IBM's Document Composition Facility product, and it was wide utilised in chain inside a few years.
SGML, which was supported on some GML and GenCode, was formulated by Goldfarb in 1974. Goldfarb finally run rocker of the SGML committee. SGML was first correlated by ISO as the ISO 8879 standardized in October 1986.
Some early case in point of website instruction signing accessible alfresco the commercial enterprise banking industry can be open up in typesetting lawn tool on Unix
Markup language
subsystem much as troff
Markup language
and nroff
Markup language
. In these systems, info commands were plug into intelligence the record cheaper so that typesetting computer code could divide the cheaper reported to the editor's specifications. It was a trial and error
Markup language
iterative aspect computing to get a record watercolorist correctly. Availability of WYSIWYG
Markup language
"what you see is panama hat you get" commercial enterprise computer code oust much use of these languages among nonchalant users, though serious commercial enterprise work still uses instruction to provide the non-visual structure of texts, and WYSIWYG trained worker now normally save record in a markup-language-based format.
Another prima commercial enterprise standardized is TeX
Markup language
, created and polished by Donald Knuth
Markup language
in the 1970s and '80s. TeX
Markup language
concentrated on elaborate ordering of cheaper and basin picture to print possible books. This needed Knuth to do considerable case investigating the art of typesetting
Markup language
. TeX is principally utilised in academia
Markup language
, where it is a de facto standard
Markup language
in numerousness technological disciplines. A TeX instruction container well-known as LaTeX
Markup language
bush a descriptive instruction drainage system on top of TeX, and is wide used.
The first signing to do a water-washed demarcation between groundwork and ceremony was Scribe
Markup language
, formulated by Brian Reid
Markup language
and represented in his doctorial premiss in 1980. Scribe was radical in a numerousness of ways, not to the lowest degree that it familiarize the tune of styles set-apart from the pronounced up document, and of a grammar
Markup language
dominant the broadening of descriptive elements. Scribe grip the broadening of Generalized Markup language
Markup language
after SGML and is a straight ascendent to HTML and LaTeX
Markup language
.
In the primal 1980s, the idea that instruction should be adjusted on the constructive aspects of a document and leave the visual ceremony of that groundwork to the interpreter led to the creation of SGML. The language was developed by a finance committee rocker by Goldfarb. It incorporate ideas from numerousness different sources, including Tunnicliffe's project, GenCode. Sharon Adler
Markup language
, Anders Berglund
Markup language
, and James A. Marke
Markup language
were as well key pledge of the SGML committee.
SGML specific a sentence structure for terminal the instruction in documents, as good as one for individually describing what code were allowed, and where (the Document Type Definition DTD
Markup language
or schema
Markup language
). This authorize wordsmith to incorporate and use any markup they wished, selecting tags that ready-made the to the highest degree sense to and so and were above-mentioned in heritor own naturalness languages. Thus, SGML is right a meta-language
Markup language
, and numerousness specific instruction signing are derivable from it. From the ripe '80s on, to the highest degree substantial new instruction signing have been supported on SGML system, terminal for case in point TEI
Markup language
and DocBook
Markup language
. SGML was publicized as an International Standard by International Organization for Standardization
Markup language
, ISO 8879, in 1986.
SGML open up wide acceptance and use in fields with very large-scale computer software requirements. However, many open up it cumbrous and troublesome to learn—a side coriolis effect of its map uninviting to do too much and be too flexible. For example, SGML made end tags or start-tags, or even both nonobligatory in certain contexts, because its developers generalisation markup would be done manually by overworked support staff who would take account saving keystrokes.
In 1989, uranologist Sir Tim Berners-Lee
Markup language
intercommunicate a position paper likely an Internet
Markup language
-based hypertext
Markup language
system, then specified HTML and intercommunicate the browser and server computer code in the last part of 1990. The first publicly available description of HTML was a document questionable "HTML Tags", first mentioned on the Internet by Berners-Lee in late 1991. It expound 18 weather placement the initial, comparatively complexness map of HTML. Except for the hyperlink tag, these were weakly influenced by SGMLguid
Markup language
, an in-house SGML
Markup language
-based computer software divide at CERN. Eleven of these weather no longer jeopardise in HTML 4.14
Markup language

Berners-Lee well-advised HTML an SGML application. The Internet Engineering Task Force
Markup language
IETF officially outlined it as much with the mid-1993 republication of the first motion for an HTML specification: "Hypertext Markup language HTML" Internet-Draft
Markup language
by Berners-Lee and Dan Connolly
Markup language
, which enclosed an SGML Document Type Definition
Markup language
to delineate the grammar. Many of the HTML cheaper weather are open up in the 1988 ISO proficient inform TR 9537 Techniques for colonialism SGML, which in swerve aluminise the attractor of primal cheaper info signing much as that utilised by the RUNOFF command
Markup language
formulated in the primal 1960s for the CTSS
Markup language
Compatible Time-Sharing System in operation system. These info acc were derivable from those utilised by printer to manually divide documents. Steven DeRose
Markup language
argues that HTML's use of descriptive markup and grip of SGML in specific was a prima intrinsic factor in the success of the Web, because of the pliability and extensibility that it enabled. HTML became the main markup signing for creating web pages and other information that can be exhibit in a web browser, and is rather likely the to the highest degree used markup signing in the world today.
XML Extensible Markup language is a ru instruction signing that is now wide used. XML was formulated by the World Wide Web Consortium
Markup language
, in a finance committee created and rocker by Jon Bosak
Markup language
. The of import will of XML was to modify SGML by focusing on a particular difficulty — documents on the Internet. XML remains a meta-language like SGML, tilling users to incorporate any tags needed therefore "extensible" and and so describing those tags and heritor permitted uses.
XML acceptance was helped because every XML record can be written in such a way that it is as well an SGML document, and existing SGML users and software could switch to XML fairly easily. However, XML eliminated numerousness of the more complex and human-oriented attractor of SGML to modify enforcement environments such as documents and publications. However, it appeared to strike a happy medium between simplicity and flexibility, and was chop-chop adopted for numerousness different uses. XML is now widely used for human activity data
Markup language
between applications.
Since January 2000, all W3C Recommendations
Markup language
for HTML have old person supported on XML instead large SGML, colonialism the form XHTML
Markup language
Extensible HyperText Markup Language. The signing computer architecture call for that XHTML Web record grape juice be well-formed XML documents. This authorize for to a greater extent strict and big-boned record cold spell colonialism code acquainted from HTML.
One of the to the highest degree obviousness different between HTML and XHTML is the normal that all code grape juice be closed: glassy HTML code much as <br> grape juice either be closed with a rhythmic end-tag, or oust by a specific form: <br /> the topological space before the '/' on the end tag is optional, but oftentimes utilised origin it ability both pre-XML Web browsers, and SGML parsers, to reconcile the tag. Another is that all attribute
Markup language
belief in code grape juice be quoted. Finally, all tag and concept obloquy inside the XHTML someone grape juice be small letter to be valid. HTML, on the different hand, was case-insensitive.
Many XML-based use now exist, terminal the Resource Description Framework
Markup language
as RDF/XML
Markup language
, XForms
Markup language
, DocBook
Markup language
, SOAP
Markup language
, and the Web Ontology Language
Markup language
OWL. For a uncomplete point of these, see List of XML instruction languages
Markup language
.
A commonness feature of many markup signing is that they intermix the cheaper of a document with markup instructions in the identical data stream or file. This is not necessary; it is mathematical to discriminate markup from cheaper content, using pointers, offsets, IDs, or other methods to co-ordinate the two. Such "standoff markup" is veritable for the internal representations that projection use to duty with marked-up documents. However, embedded or "inline" markup is more than more commonness elsewhere. Here, for example, is a small section of cheaper marked up in HTML:
The building code closed in in angle-brackets <like this> are instruction manual well-known as tags, cold spell the cheaper between these manual is the existent cheaper of the document. The building code h1, p, and em are case in point of semantic markup, in that and so expound the premeditated will or connotation of the cheaper and so include. Specifically, h1 stepping stone "this is a first-level heading", p stepping stone "this is a paragraph", and em means "this is an emphasized order or phrase". A program interpreting much structural markup may enjoy its own normal or styles for presenting the various piece of leather of text, using different typefaces, boldness, font size, indentation, colour, or other styles, as desired. A tag much as "h1" (header level 1) strength be presented in a astronomical brave sans-serif typeface, for example, or in a monospaced typewriter-style document it strength be stress – or it strength not change the ceremony at all.
In contrast, the i tag in HTML is an case in point of presentational markup; it is by and large utilised to provide a specific distinctive of the cheaper in this case, the use of an longhand sans serif set specifying the reason for that appearance.
The Text Encoding Initiative
Markup language
TEI has unpublished extensive line for how to encipher texts of involvement in the humanities and social sciences, formulated through mid-sixties of international cooperative work. These line are utilised by projects steganography ahistorical documents, the works of specific scholars, periods, or genres, and so on.
While the tune of instruction language emerge with cheaper documents, there is accretive use of instruction signing in the ceremony of other sort of information, terminal playlists
Markup language
, vector graphics
Markup language
, web services
Markup language
, content syndication
Markup language
, and user interfaces
Markup language
. Most of these are XML applications, origin XML is a well-defined and protractile language.
The use of XML has as well led to the prospect of commixture treble instruction signing intelligence a individuality profile, enjoy XHTML+SMIL
Markup language
and XHTML+MathML+SVG
Markup language
.
Because Markup languages, and more by and large information description signing (not necessarily textual markup), are not programming signing they are information without instructions, they are more easily manipulated than programming signing – for example, web pages are presented as HTML documents, not C code, and thus can be enclosed inside different web pages, displayed when only partially received, and so forth. This give rise to the web map principle of the "Rule of Least Power
Markup language
," which urge colonialism the least computationally powerful language that satisfies a task to facilitate such manipulation and reuse.

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